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Wednesday, June 8, 2011

Comparative and Superlative

FORMING THE COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE

Using the comparative of adjectives in English is quite easy once you have understood the few simple rules that govern them.
Below you will find the rules with examples for each condition.
If you are not sure what a syllable or a consonant is - have a look here.
big, bigger, biggest

Rules

Number of syllables Comparative Superlative (see rule)
one syllable + -er + -est
tall taller tallest
one syllable with the spelling consonant + single vowel + consonant: double the final consonant:
fat fatter fattest
big bigger biggest
sad sadder saddest
Number of syllables Comparative Superlative
two syllables + -er OR more + adj + -est OR most + adj
ending in: -y, -ly, -ow
ending in: -le, -er or -ure
these common adjectives - handsome, polite, pleasant, common, quiet
happy happier/ more happy happiest/ most happy
yellow yellower/ more yellow yellowest/ most yellow
simple simpler/ more simple simplest/ most simple
tender tenderer/ more tender tenderest/ most tender
If you are not sure, use MORE + OR MOST +
Note: Adjectives ending in '-y' like happy, pretty, busy, sunny, lucky etc:. replace the -y with -ier or -iest in the comparative and superlative form
busy busier busiest
Number of syllables Comparative Superlative
three syllables or more more + adj most + adj
important more important most important
expensive more expensive most expensive

Examples

  • A cat is fast, a tiger is faster but a cheetah is the fastest
  • A car is heavy, a truck is heavier, but a train is the heaviest
  • A park bench is comfortable, a restaurant chair is more comfortable, but a sofa is the most comfortable
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  • IRREGULAR COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES

    These adjectives have completely irregular comparative and superlative forms:
    Adjective Comparative Superlative
    good
    better best
    bad
    worse worst
    little
    less least
    much
    more most
    far
    further / farther furthest / farthest
     
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  • NOT AS + ADJECTIVE + AS

    Difference can also be shown by using not so/as ...as:

    Examples

    • Mont Blanc is not as high as Mount Everest
    • Norway is not as sunny as Thailand
    • A bicycle is not as expensive as a car
    • Arthur is not as intelligent as Albert


    COMPARISONS OF QUANTITY

    To show difference: more, less, fewer + than
    To show no difference: as much as , as many as, as few as, as little as


    COMPARISONS OF QUANTITY

    To show difference: more, less, fewer + than

    Examples:

    With countable nouns: more / fewer
    • Eloise has more children than Chantal.
    • Chantal has fewer children than Eloise.
    • There are fewer dogs in Cardiff than in Bristol
    • I have visited fewer countries than my friend has.
    • He has read fewer books than she has.
    With uncountable nouns: more / less
    • Eloise has more money than Chantal.
    • Chantal has less money than Eloise.
    • I spend less time on homework than you do.
    • Cats drink less water than dogs.
    • This new dictionary gives more information than the old one.

    So, the rule is:

    MORE + nouns that are countable or uncountable
    FEWER + countable nouns
    LESS + uncountable nouns


    COMPARISONS OF QUANTITY

    Rules

    To show no difference: as much as , as many as, as few as, as little as
    • as many as / as few as + countable nouns
    • as much as / as little as + uncountable nouns

    Examples:

    With countable nouns:
    • They have as many children as us.
    • We have as many customers as them.
    • Tom has as few books as Jane.
    • There are as few houses in his village as in mine.
    • You know as many people as I do.
    • I have visited the States as many times as he has.
    With uncountable nouns:
    • John eats as much food as Peter.
    • Jim has as little food as Sam.
    • You've heard as much news as I have.
    • He's had as much success as his brother has.
    • They've got as little water as we have.




     

Adjective

Rules

1. Adjectives are invariable:
They do not change their form depending on the gender or number of the noun.
A hot potato Some hot potatoes
2. To emphasise or strengthen the meaning of an adjective use 'very' or 'really':
A very hot potato Some really hot potatoes.


Position of adjectives

a) Usually in front of a noun: A beautiful girl.
b) After verbs like "to be", "to seem" , "to look", "to taste":

Examples

  • The girl is beautiful
  • You look tired
  • This meat tastes funny.
c) After the noun: in some fixed expressions:

Examples

  • The Princess Royal
  • The President elect
  • a court martial
d) After the noun with the adjectives involved, present, concerned:

Examples

  1. I want to see the people involved/concerned (= the people who have something to do with the matter)
  2. Here is a list of the people present (= the people who were in the building or at the meeting)
Be careful! When these adjectives are used before the noun they have a different meaning:
  • An involved discussion = detailed, complex
  • A concerned father = worried, anxious
  • The present situation = current, happening now


Function of Adjectives

Adjectives can:

Describe feelings or qualities:

Examples

  • He is a lonely man
  • They are honest people
Give nationality or origin:

Examples

  • Pierre is French
  • This clock is German
  • Our house is Victorian
Tell more about a thing's characteristics:

Examples

  • A wooden table.
  • The knife is sharp.
Tell us about age:

Examples

  • He's young man
  • My coat is very old
Tell us about size and measurement:

Examples

  • John tall man.
  • This is a very long film.
Tell us about colour:

Examples

  • Paul wore a red shirt.
  • The sunset was crimson and gold.
Tell us about material/what something is made of:

Examples

  • It was a wooden table
  • She wore a cotton dress
Tell us about shape:

Examples

  • A rectangular box
  • A square envelope
Express a judgement or a value:

Examples

  • A fantastic film
  • Grammar is boring.
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  • Order of Adjectives

    Rules

    Where a number of adjectives are used together, the order depends on the function of the adjective. The usual order is:
    Value/opinion, Size, Age/Temperature, Shape, Colour, Origin, Material
    Value/opinion delicious, lovely, charming
    Size small, huge, tiny
    Age/Temperature old, hot, young
    Shape round, square, rectangular
    Colour red, blonde, black
    Origin Swedish, Victorian, Chinese
    Material plastic, wooden, silver

    Examples:

    • a lovely old red post-box
    • some small round plastic tables
    • some charming small silver ornaments
     
  • for more info adjective

    Tuesday, June 7, 2011

    Greetings, Students!

    Dear all students,

    I hope you enjoy my blog and make use of it.
    Just in case of anything, do contact me through this blog.
    Do not feel shy to ask, inshaAllah I will try to entertain all your inquiries.
    Take careof yourself.

    Regards,
    Miss Anis


    Saturday, April 30, 2011

    Noun : A Wrap Up

    This is not the wrap up of everything but as for now, we should move on to another Grammar parts.
    However, remember, never quit learning and comprehending about nouns.

    Good Luck!


    Printable Worksheet #Nouns

    Here are some printable worksheet on nouns. You can print them, and read it wherever you want.

                                                                #  common & proper nouns


                                                            # worksheet common & proper nouns


                                                         

    Links of Nouns

    Here are some useful links of Nouns that you can browse through.

    # Collective Noun

    # Collective Nouns 2

    Common and Proper Nouns

    # Proper Nouns

    # Proper Nouns 2

    Exercises

    Dear viewers/ readers,

    These exercises are not meant to drill or torture you mentally and physically but to help you to test your understandings on Nouns.

    Therefore, take your time to answer the questions, think carefully.
    Good luck!


    # Common Nouns

    # Proper/ Common Nouns

    # Special Nouns

    Collective Nouns

    Collective Noun 2